“It is a skin disease that occurs primarily in adolescence and results in increased skin oiliness, as well as a variety of lesions on the face and body. It is caused by overactivity of the sebaceous glands, combined with obstruction of their efferent duct, and by colonization of the skin with the microbe Propionibacterium acnes”, as the Dermatologist – Venereologist Dr. Amalia Tsiatoura states.
Acne, most commonly, occurs when the pores of the skin become clogged. Each pore corresponds to a hair follicle, which includes hair and oil glands. If the gland becomes blocked, hair and oil become trapped inside it, leading to the formation of pimples.
During adolescence, overproduction of sebum due to hormonal changes leads to the appearance of acne. Also, cosmetics that are not indicated for the skin type of the individual can lead to the appearance of acne. This is because they “block” the pores of the hair follicles, resulting in the appearance of acne.
Taking medications, such as chronic cortisone intake, can also lead to the appearance of acne. Certain foods, such as high-fat foods, chocolate and alcohol, have been implicated in the development of acne.
Acne usually manifests itself in the form of cysts, papules and pustules (red pimples with white or yellow pus). Often there is intense redness at the sites of the cysts. It may also appear with black or white spots. Acne occurs mainly on the face and neck, as well as on the body, back, chest and shoulders.
Depending on its type and severity, acne is divided into the following categories:
- Common acne (acne during puberty)
- Common acne in teenage years
- Infantile acne
- Phagesoric acne
- Cystic Acne
- Acne Fulminass
- Mallorca Acne (Acne aestivalis)
- Tropical Acne
- Acne from Drugs
- Acne from Cosmetics
- Traumatic Acne in Young Women
- Rosacea Acne
A dermatologist is the best specialist to diagnose the problem of acne, check the type of acne and suggest the most appropriate treatment. The type of treatment depends on the type of acne and also on the skin of each patient.
The most common, specific treatment methods are as follows:
- PDT Photodynamic Therapy
- CO2 Fractional Laser
- Facial Autologous Mesotherapy
- Chemical Peeling
- Facial Microdermoabrasion
- Topical Treatment with Drugs
- Systemic Treatment with Drugs
- Injections directly into the lesions
- Cystic Acne Treatment with surgical excision of cysts
What is the cause of adult acne?
The following factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of adult female acne:
- Heredity: Most common in women whose mothers suffered from acne after the age of 25.
- Hormonal factors: Locally, in the sebaceous glands, testosterone is converted to dihydrotestosterone. The latter leads to seborrhoea and an increase in keratinisation, thus favouring colonisation of the hair follicle with acnes.
- Use of cosmetics: Cosmetics with petrolatum and vegetable oils or cosmetics that are not suitable for the patient’s skin type may lead to the appearance of acne.
- Use of medications: such as corticosteroids, antidepressants, antiepileptics, etc.
- Other factors: Smoking and severe stress.
Is Acne related to Diet?
According to studies, excessive consumption of carbohydrates and fat leading to hyperinsulinemia, as well as a decrease in insulin due to the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids, are some dietary habits that seem to favor Acne. Many studies report the potential role of milk and dairy products in Acne, through an increase in blood insulin.
How is acne related to a woman’s menstrual flow (period)?
It is suggested that there is some correlation between early star of menstrual flow and the severity of acne. Acne is more severe when the start of menstrual flow is earlier.
What is Rosacea?
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory condition of the facial skin. It usually appears as a severe erythema (redness) mainly on the cheeks and nose. It may also appear on the forehead or chin, and rarely occurs on the scalp.
In addition to the redness, there may be pimples and inflammation, papules and swelling of the blood vessels in the nose and cheeks. In some cases, spider veins and itching in the area are also observed.
The Demodex folliculorum mite, which is naturally present in human skin, has been implicated in its occurrence. It is essentially a parasite, which ‘feeds’ on the hair follicles of the face.
For the treatment of rosacea, the detection of the mites in the skin must be preceded and then, the appropriate treatment should be proposed.